Diagnosing Cancer (January-August, 2017)

Carl O Helvie, R.N., Dr.P.H.

Table of Content

    1. Supplemental Test for Use With/Without Cancer Tests.
      Nutritional=Nutritional Deficiency Test 
    2. Pre-Cancer Diagnosis
      Colon Polyps– Colonoscopy, Camera in a Capsule, Stool Specimen, Cologuard, Blood Test 
      All Cancers—C A Profile
    3. Early/Very Early Cancer Diagnosis-Non-Traditional (Some diagnose cancer before symptoms/detection by any other means) (Some also useful for evaluating effectiveness of treatment). 
      All Cancers 
      AMAS-Anti Malignin Antibody Screening test 
      Oncoblot (ENOX2)
      Liquid Biopsy 
      Cancer (Tumor) Markers 
      HGC Urine Cancer Test (Navarro) 
      Bioenergetic Testing 
    4. Some Traditional Early Detection Tests-May also be used to determine progress of cancer/Effectiveness of treatment. 
      CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
      PEI Scan (Positron Emission Tomography Scan)
      Mammography
      Thermography
      MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
    5. Early Detection/Self-Examination as a Diagnostic Tool
      Breast Self-Exam
      Testicular Self-Exam
      Skin Self-Exam (Melanoma Detection)
      Oral Self-Exam
    6. Early Detection/Dream Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool
      Introduction-Remembering Dreams, Analyzing Dreams, Dream Sharing, Dream analysis for fee.
    7. Useful Tests After Diagnosis but before Treatment Decisions to Identify Best Customized Tests for the Specific Individual
      Chemo-Sensitivity Test (not just chemo but includes laetrile, and other natural treatments)
      EVA (Ex Vivo Apoptotic Assay)
      APT-TCA Test
    8. Testing After Diagnosis to Determine Probability of Later Recurrence that may be Useful in Treatment Decisions.
      Breast Cancer-Mamma-Print-70 gene assay test.
      Colon Cancer-Coloprint

 

Content

1. Supplemental Nutritional Test for Use With/Without Other Pre/Post Cancer Tests (June-July, 2017)

Nutritional Deficiency Testing

Cancer patients, like the American public in general, tend to have nutritional deficiencies that may interfere with cancer recovery. This is an important test to carry out along with those above when using a holistic approach. Two of the laboratories that provide this test are Spectrum Cell Laboratories and NutrEval by Genova Diagnostics. The function of thirty-five nutritional components in white blood cells including vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, and amino-acids are evaluated by Spectra Cell. .Research shows that testing the white blood cells gives the best picture of the bodies nutritional deficiencies. It also shows that deficiencies of vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants can affect the immune system and lead to degenerative diseases. Blood for testing can be drawn at your local lab and mailed to spectra Cell or by your physician. A finder search engine for a provider near you is available on the site. Results show deficiencies in the body and provides recommendations for supplementation. The thirty-five items are identified on their website at: https://www.spectracell.com/patients/patient-micronutrient-testing/ ​​​​​​​​​

NutrEval evaluates basically the same items as SpectraCell and provides a 12 page report of results. See the sample here. https://www.gdx.net/core/sample-reports/NutrEval_FMV-Sample-Report.pdf

More information on lab draws and so forth are at: https://www.gdx.net/product/nutreval-fmv-nutritional-test-blood-urine

True Health Labs lists the price as follows: Regular Price: $12,739.00, Your Price: $1,029.00.

2. Pre-Cancer Diagnosis (March, 2017)

Colon Polyps.

Colonoscopy. During Colonoscopy polyps that are precancerous may be found in the colon and if removed during the procedure will prevent colon cancer. . This procedure is not recommended after age 80 because of the increased risk of rupturing the colon. It is an invasive procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a colonoscope is inserted up the rectum to look at the colon. The procedure helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors, and areas of inflammation or bleeding. Colonoscopy can be used as a screening test to check for cancer or precancerous growths in the colon or rectum (polyps). An important part of the procedure is the prep that takes place before the procedure to clean the colon so it can be easily seen and the procedure successful. This prep includes a special diet, fluids and laxatives, Your doctor will tell you the specific requirements before the procedure.

Colonoscopy Procedure You Tube (4 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nv7fCNGyNJ4

Having a Colonoscopy (14 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwjaARY5L1k

Camera in a capsule colonoscopy. In March, 2017 Science Digest reported a new procedure that was approved by the FSA to obtain colonoscopy for selected people. In this procedure the preparation is the same but instead of having colonoscopy, the client swallows a capsule that has a camera inside that takes pictures of the colon and any polyps present. If there is no polyps the client is spared the invasive procedure. If polyps are present, he/she will need the colonoscopy to remove the polyps. However, the new procedure requires the cleansing prep the same as the traditional prep before the procedure can be completed.

Stool specimen. Another colon cancer/precancerous test involved a stool specimen and is called Cologuard. It is a non-invasive, easy to use at home stool test that is approved by the FDA. It is for people over 50 with an average risk of colon cancer and must be prescribed by your doctor. There is no diet changes or other prep before the test. It detects 92 percent of the colon cancers and 69 percent of high risk precancerous tumors. It is covered by Medicare and some private insurance companies. More information is available at: http://www.cologuardtest.com/

Cologuart DVD’s

How to Use Cologuart

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8aHw09VQ5o

Blood tests: A new less invasive blood test has also been shown to detect and prevent colon cancer. It is the Colon Cancer Specific Antigen 2 (CCSA-2) a protein that is elevated in the presence of a cancer tumor and has a low false positive/false negative according to Nicholas J. Petrelli, MD, of the Helen F. Graham Cancer Center in Wilmington, Del. He also says the test detects high risk polyps that if not removed will likely cause cancer in the future. Unlike the colonoscopy this test has no discomfort, pain or risk of complications. The higher the CCSA-2 in the blood the greater the risk of cancer or precancerous growth. Research has been encouraging. In a test of 260 people with colon cancer, polyps, and other diseases the test was 80 to 91 percent accurate (sensitivity/specificity) at detecting those with colon cancer/precancerous polyps. Studies to further validate the test are planned using larger samples. Like the original colonoscopy, the invasive procedure may need to be carried out if polyps are found to remove them and prevent colon cancer.

All Cancers

The CA Profile Test is a test for early cancer detection with an 87 to 97% accuracy. It is based upon the assumption that there are detectable biochemical changes that occur in the human body prior to but during its transformation into a cancerous state. It is known that cancer evolves over many years as a renegade cancer cell develops into a cancer tumor. Some of the processes that occur during tumor development can be measured such as the C-reactive protein and the fibrinogen that indicate chronic inflammation. Chronic insulin resistance, high cholesterol levels and weakened immune functioning also contribute to a weakened body resistance. Also the gradual buildup of chemical toxins and heavy metals in the body may contribute to the mutational changes seen in aberrant cancer cell growth. And last unresolvable chronic stress may be the final burden to the body’s defenses.

The CA Profile is composed of the following 8 tests:

Tests 1-3. HCG is human chorionic gonadotropin, which is tested under 3 different methodologists, serum chemiluminescence assay and immunoradiometric assay, and urine quantitative chemiluminescence assay

Test 4. PHI is phosphohexose isomerase enzyme

Test 5. CEA is carcinoembryonic antigen

Test 6. GGTP is gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase

Test 7. TSH is thyroid-stimulating hormone

Test 8. DHEA-S is dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

Dr Emil Schandl, who developed the test after many years of reading, testing, and experimenting at the Howard Hughes Research Institute and local hospitals in Miami, has seen markers elevated in patients as many as 10 to 12 years before diagnosis of cancer. Knowing the time necessary to develop cancer allows individuals diagnosed by the test to make lifestyle changes to hopefully prevent or reduce the effect of cancer. In addition, the test is useful for clinical laboratory follow up and monitoring disease reduction or progression.

While each test included in the Profile might not be indicative enough when analyzed alone, together they provide an impressive level of accuracy. “Looking at three cancer markers together (HCG, PHI, CEA), 221 positives in 240 breast cancer patients (92 percent) were detected. Of lung cancer patients, 127 of 129 (97 percent) were correctly diagnosed. And with colon cancer patients, 55 positives out of 59 patients (93 percent) were correctly identified.” “Also included in the profile are the DHEA-S, TSH, and GGTP tests. These are peripherally related to cancer. The rationale is that people with either low thyroid activity, low adrenal activity, or abnormal GGTP results seem to be predisposed to cancer.” https://www.americanmetaboliclaboratories.net/ca-profile.html

Although the above site does not identify price for the test, it is listed as $300. At the Mind Body Medicine Center website: https://www.healmindbody.com/the-ca-profile-a-new-test-to-detect-cancer-early/

C A Profile on DVD
C A Profile by Dr Schandl
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gdksrRVDl8 (1 ½ min)

Dr Schandl talks about blood test, diet, and .disease, Pqrt 1 (10 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZJJ6IRzv7s

3. Early/Very Early Cancer Detection-Non-Traditional Tests (Some find cancer before any other current tests)( Some also useful for following progress) (July-Aug, 2017).

All Cancers
AMAS – Anti-malignin antibody screen test
This test is designed to pick up cancers before the patient has other signs and symptoms, and months before conventional medical tests can detect it. The test is good for early stage cancers but for advanced cancer, if the anti-malignin antibody is wiped out, the test doesn’t work. Reports on the test are contradictory but in one study of over 8,000 patients the test was 95% accurate in detecting cancer. Oncolab will send a free test kit for you to take to your doctor. The test runs about $150 in addition to your doctor’s office charges for drawing blood. Call 1-800-9CATest for a test kit and information.

AMAS test on DVD

Patient Story and Recommendation for AMAS (10 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2fZVC8LvMA

Early Cancer Screening—ANAS test
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jrqKG8YoSq0

The ONCOblot test (Ecto-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Oxidase Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 2 or (ENOX2)
This is another test for early cancer detection that identifies a specific type of protein in the blood, ENOX2, that exists only on the surface of a malignant cancer cell. The protein is shed into the circulation, can be detected in the blood, and is a highly sensitive marker for the confirmation of cancer. It can be detected as early as stage 0 or when there is 2 mm or less of tumor mass that is about the size of a pinhead (estimated 2 million cells) compared to several billion cells needed for a positive mammogram. Thus, it can be detected before it is visible on any scans or other tests. It can also determine which organ it is growing in.

Over 200 articles have been published in Scientific Journals on the test and its database contains the following 25+ ENOX2 transcript variants:• Bladder
• Breast• Cervical• Colorectal• Endometrial• Esophageal• Gastric• Hepatocellular
• Kidney• Leukemia• Non-Small cell• Lung Small cell• Lymphoma• Melanoma
• Mesothelioma• Myeloma• Ovarian• Pancreatic• Prostate• Sarcoma
• Squamous Cell• Follicular Thyroid• Papillary Thyroid• Testicular Germ Cell
• Uterine. Tests will be positive for Stage 1 and Stage 4 disease, stage 4 recurrence disease but not in the blood of non-cancer (healthy) volunteers, nor in survivors who were free of disease for 1 to 5 years.

The test can be used in combination with other tests such as a high PSA, abnormal mammogram, or suspicious PET scan. It also confirms biopsy results and detects cancer in high risk populations. It can also be used to confirm post treatment effectiveness.

In early 2016 the cost of the test ranged from $850 to $1,000. The Reno Integrative Medical Center charges $1,000 for the test However, in 2016 one newpaper in Canada listed the price as $1700. The ONCOblot lab will only send the kit to your physician who draws the blood and returns it to the lab. Results are sent to your doctor and usually take 3 weeks. Plans are underway to obtain insurance coverage. More information is available at: http://oncoblotlabs.com/

Oncoblot Test on Video
Oncoblot Explained (5 minutes)

Liquid Biopsy ( A test to watch for in the future.)
A test done on a sample of blood to look for cancer cells from tumors that are circulating in the blood or for pieces of DNA from tumor cells that are in the blood. A liquid biopsy can be used to help find cancer at an early stage. A minimally invasive method of testing, the liquid biopsy can sidestep costly and stressful surgical procedures. All that is required is blood samples and sensitive and specific solutions to detect and analyze circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), exosomes and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The test is based upon the premise that cancer cells shed DNA into blood that can be detected. Currently a problem for early diagnosis is that healthy cells also shed DNA and may overshadow the DNA of cancer cells making it difficult to find and measure. It is believe3d that by having an annual blood test it would be possible to pick up the cancer cells at the earliest period when treatment is most effective.

Two large studies are currently ongoing to show that DNA analysis in blood can act as a screening tool. In one study one thousand people with hepatitis B are being followed to see if DNA in tests can identify liver tumors before ultrasound can. A larger study of 20,000 healthy men in Hong Kong analyzing vasopharyngeal cancer that starts at the upper part of the throat and is common in China among men. The test being analyzed looks for easy to spot DNA released by dying cancer patients into the blood and the study is half done. Among the first 10.000 men screened .researchers identified 17 cases of cancer with 13 of those stage 1. And almost all have overcome cancer as opposed to the usual less than 70 percent survival.

Many other institutions are looking for a screening test of blood for shed DNA for all cancers. In addition to screening for cancer, others are looking for ways liquid biopsy could be used to help fight disease by assisting in the selection of drugs according to specific DNA mutations that drive the cancer forward. Currently some tests are done for this purpose on tissue from the tumor (see the chemo sensitivity test) but a blood test could also be appropriate. A major problem currently is the cost of the test that is up to $4,500.

Videos on Liquid Biopsy
Liquid Biopsy: Detecting Breast Cancer Recurrence
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pC7QJGX4kM (4 min)

Can Liquid Biopsy Detect Cancer in Your Body before Symptoms

https://video.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?fr=yhs-mozilla-001&hsimp=yhs-001&hspart=mozilla&p=liquid+biopsy+you+tube#id=1&vid=0f4c06003cdc227c0a042339f0a0182f&action=click (2 min)

Cancer/Tumor Markers

Tumor markers are usually proteins that are produced by cancer or other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions and can be found in the blood, urine, stool, tumor tissue, or other tissue or body fluids of some patients with cancer. Tumor markers may be made by normal cells and by cancer cells but cancer cells are produced at much higher levels in cancerous conditions. Although most tumor markers are protein recently, patterns of gene expression and changes to DNA have also begun to be used as tumor markers.

Many tumor markers have been characterized and are in clinical use but No “universal” tumor marker has been found that can detect any type of cancer Some markers are associated with only one type of cancer, whereas others are associated with two or more cancer types.

Limitations in the use of tumor markers include: 1 Sometimes, noncancerous conditions cause the levels of certain tumor markers to increase, 2) Not everyone with a particular type of cancer will have a higher level of a tumor marker associated with that cancer, and 3) Tumor markers have not been identified for every type of cancer.

Tumor markers are used to help detect, diagnose, and manage some types of cancer. An elevated level of a tumor marker may suggest the presence of cancer, this alone, however, is not specific enough to diagnose cancer. Thus, Tumor markers measurements are usually combined with other tests, such as biopsies, to diagnose cancer. Tumor markers may be used to assist in diagnosing cancer, detect changes in measures during treatment, and to determine recurrence4s following treatment. . Serial measurements are more effective than single measurements for these functions because they show whether the level of a marker is increasing, staying the same, or decreasing.

The following link used with permission contains a Patient Guide to Tumor Markers . that shows many of the tumor markers now used in practice. https://www.oncolink.org/print/html/2271

Videos on Tumor Markers

What is a Tumor Marker

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSjnzCJH6_E (1 min)

Tumor Markers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HP9mi66p1o ( 5 min)

 

HGC Urine Cancer Test (Navarro Urine Test)

The HGC Urine Cancer Test was developed in the late 1950s by an oncologist, the late Dr. Manuel D. Navarro, and detects the presence of cancer cells even before signs or symptoms develop. Dr. Navarro found HCG to be present in all types of cancers and can be used to diagnose cancer, to follow progress of patients, and to identify remissions.

The test is based on a theory that cancer is related to a misplaced trophoblastic cell that become malignant in a manner similar to pregnancy because both secrete HCG. The amount of HCG found in the blood or urine is a measure of the severity of malignancy and the higher the number on the test, the greater the severity of cancer.

Urine, as opposed to blood or serum, is the preferred specimen for the test based upon research findings. In 32 proven cancer cases, the test gave 31 positive results using urine while only 12 positive results when using blood. The test detects the presence of brain cancer as early as 29 months before symptoms appear; 27 months for fibro sarcoma of the abdomen; 24 months for skin cancer; 12 months for cancer of the bones.

Many patients use the Navarro test for following their cancer progress because it does not expose them to the radiation of the CT/PET scans and is also cheaper. It does not require a prescription and costs $55.00. At diagnosis a score may be between 50 and 70 IU on the Navarro test if previously diagnosed using other technology such as CT/PET scan, biopsy, MRI or other tests identified later. However, the test results may go as high as 10,000 IU for certain cancers, mainly of the reproductive system. A second test at 6 to 8 weeks following the first is important to tell if treatment is working (numbers lower than the first report) or if you need to reconsider your treatment protocol. The eventual goal of follow up tests is to obtain tests results below 50 that indicates no cancer present.

More information on preparing and sending the specimen, cost, payment method and other questions at: http://www.navarromedicalclinic.com/index.php

Navarro You Tube Videos

Navarro Results-Bone Cancer

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yt5D63j3wFk (4 1/2 min)

 

Bioenergetic Testing

The National Institute of Health defines Bioenergetics as the scientific study of interactions between living organisms and electromagnetic fields, forces, energies, currents and charges. Over a 30 year period between 1970 and 2000 Carl O Helvie developed the Helvie Energy Theory of Nursing and Health utilizing the work of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, and Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory (GST) that was adopted by others working in mathematics, psychology, biology, game theory and social network analysis. Although the Helvie Energy Theory offered a framework for assessing, planning and implementing nursing and health care at any system level (organ, individual, family, community, nation, or world) it did not offer specific bioenergetics testing devices for measuring these energies. For example, one exchange between the human and environment is nutrition that is measured by calories. We can assess an individual’s nutrition and compare against standards for a similar individual but there is no device to measure this energy exchange although we are moving in that direction with the Nutrition deficiency testing by Spectrum Cell identified earlier. Another example used in sick care is the thermometer that measures increase or decrease in temperature (energy) and tells us that something in the body is out of balance but does not diagnose a disease.

Bioenergetic testing is a new, emerging field that utilized the energy of the body along with computerized devices to scan the body for toxins, infections, hormonal, organ and glandular functioning, It also identifies treatments that are likely to be most effective.to correct imbalances. This field is very controversial and will not be discussed further. The interested reader might google The Limbic Stress Assessment (LSA) by the ZYTO Corporation and the Meridian Stress Assessment as two examples.

4. Some Traditional Early Detection Tests—That May also be used to Determine Progress of Cancer/Effectiveness of Treatment. (July-August 2017)

C T Scan (computerized tomography

This test can be used to detect new tumors and to also measure changes in the size of a tumor and provides more information than a plain x-ray. It can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the cancer treatment. It combines a series of x-ray images at different angles with computerized processes to create cross section images of bones, blood vessels and soft tissue inside the body. You may be concerned about the radiation risk: According to McColllough et al the risk is as follows: “The effective doses from diagnostic CT procedures are typically estimated to be in the range of 1 to 10 mSv. This range is not much less than the lowest doses of 5 to 20 mSv received by some of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs. These survivors, who are estimated to have experienced doses only slightly larger than those encountered in CT, have demonstrated a small but increased radiation-related excess relative risk for cancer mortality” In an article by Storrs (2013) in Scientific American the author said a single CT scan is 100 to 1000 stronger than a conventional x-ray and is similar to a years’ worth of radiation from natural and artificial sources in the environment. In that same article the National Cancer Association estimated about 2 percent of all cancers each year are caused by C T scans.

McCollough CH, Bushberg JT, Fletcher JG, Eckel LJ. (2015) Answers to common questions about the use and safety of CT scans. Mayo Clin Proc.;90(10):1380-92

Storrs, Carina (2013) How Much Do C T Scans increase the Risk of Cancer? Scientific American. July 1, vol 309, Issue 1.

Videos on C.T. Scan

What is a C.T. Scan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0xZFkaRZSU​ (1 min)

C.T. Scan: What to Expect

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHu9aa0QDiE (2 min)

 

PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography Scan)

This test is an imaging device that allows the doctor to determine if a spot is cancerous. It determines how well the body is functioning and finds areas of abnormal metabolic activities. A special dye in a glucose (sugar) solution that has radioactive tracers is injected into a vein in the patients arm and his/her organs and tissues absorb the tracer. Resting on a table the patient is slid into a large tunnel shaped scanner. The PET scanner can see the damaged or cancerous areas where the glucose is taken up and the rate at which it is being taken up that helps identify the grade of tumor and whether or not it has metastasized to other areas. It may also show how well the tumor is responding to chemotherapy.

Cancer cell take up relates to the fact that they have learned to live in an anaerobic environment (one without oxygen) and requires up to 15 times the amount of glucose for energy as cells in an aerobic environment with oxygen.

It is recommend to plan 2 or 3 hours for the PET Scan. One hour of resting is required before scanning and the scan may take up to 45 minutes. It is usually done in the outpatient department and you can continue with any activities afterwards.

Videos on PET Scans

How Does PET Scan Work ​https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHLBcCv4rqk (1 ½ min)

What You Should Expect ​https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9iOxMFmPlA (2 ½ min_

Cancer Stages and Having A Pet Scan ​https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lk-VzATcv4M (3 min)

Mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breasts and can be used to screen for cancer in women who have no signs and symptoms. It can also be used to follow effectiveness of treatment for breast cancer. Its value in cancer detection must be weighed against its harmful effects before use. Some harmful effects may include: 1) false positives when the radiologists believe he see a suspicious spot when in reality cancer is not present. This may lead to further unnecessary mammograms, ultrasounds, biopsies, and unnecessary anxiety. Over a 10 year period research shows that in a group of women screened annually over 50 % will have at least one false positive and many of these will have an unnecessary biopsy. 2) The test cannot distinguish between those small cancers that are not and will not become invasive with symptoms and those that will and consequently all are treated. This over diagnosis leads to overtreatment. 3) False negative results occur when the test shows the patient is free of cancer even when cancer is present. This occurs in about 20% of women screened and leads to delayed treatment. 4) Radiation exposure from the exam is considered low but if the woman has repeat exams the radiation builds up can cause cancer.

Videos Mammograms—You Tube Presentations

Your First Mammogram: What to Expect

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-GmNmPeqHQ (2 ½ min)

Mammogram Visit

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRlOOTkz9jc (4 min)

Thermography is a form of thermal (infrared) imaging, a simple test that determines if you are at risk of /or have breast cancer. It is based upon the following: “cancers, even in their earliest stages, need nutrients to maintain or accelerate their growth. In order to facilitate this process, blood vessels are caused to remain open, inactive blood vessels are activated, and new ones are formed through a process known as neo angiogenesis. This vascular process causes an increase in surface temperature in the affected regions, which can be viewed with infrared imaging cameras. Additionally, the newly formed or activated blood vessels have a distinct appearance, which thermography can detect.”
http://www.drnorthrup.com/best-breast-cancer-screening-tests/

The increased heat differences on the skin is picked up by the infrared imaging camera and recorded, Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), a type of thermography used in the screening of breast cancer, uses an infrared thermal camera to take a picture of the areas of different temperature in the breasts. The camera displays these patterns as a sort of heat map. The presence of a cancerous growth is associated with the excessive formation of blood vessels and inflammation mentioned above in the breast tissue. These show up on the infrared image as areas with a higher skin temperature.

Breast thermography is a 15 minute non invasive test that alerts your doctor to changes that can indicate early stage breast disease, fibrocystic disease, an infection or a vascular disease. Your doctor can then plan accordingly and develop a program to further diagnose, if indicated, and /or monitor you during and after any treatment.

Dr Christine Northrup quoted in the above link identifies 6 reasons why she recommends thermography for breast health. These include: 1) It doesn’t identify fibrocystic tissue, breast implants, or scars as needing follow up like other tests do, 2) It is better able to detect cell changes in arm pit area than the mammogram. 3) It is a great additional test, if needed. 4) It does not hurt the patient as the mammogram sometimes does, 5) There is no radiation present 6) It is very safe. However, others are not so positive about the validity of the test. A study in 2012 reported thermography failed to properly detect breast cancer. The study of 180 women examined from 2009 to 2011 revealed a 50 percent accuracy rate in detecting breast cancer. Up to 47 percent of thermography scans resulted in false positives, which means cancer showed up in perfectly normal breast tissue.
http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2012/05/04/mammograms-beat-thermography-for-breast-cancer-detection-study

As of 2016, the American Cancer Society says thermography is not a viable way to detect breast cancer in patients. Thermography is useful to image cancers next to the skin, but this method does not view cancer deep in the breasts, nor can it detect small amounts of cancer.

Videos on Thermography

Breast Thermography

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jK62-48PB0 (8 min)

Thermography: Breast Cancer Detection Years before Mammograms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwKEMp8hIn4 (2 ½ min)

Introduction to Clinical Thermography

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjh4cAr_OWk (29 min)

Thermography Breast Scanning

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npfU6I_juN8 (3 ¾ min)

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

This is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body. In many cases, the information about structures in the body than can be seen with an MRI scan is different from that seen on X-ray, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scan. An MRI scan can be used to examine almost any part of the body, including the: brain and spinal cord, bones and joints, breasts, and internal organs, such as the liver, and prostate. Results of an MRI scan are useful for diagnosing conditions including cancer, for planning treatments, and for assessing the effectiveness of previous treatments.

MRI’s are important in cancer for diagnosing, staging and treatment planning. Differences between normal and diseased tissues can be distinguished so that cancer cells can be precisely pinpointed and metastasis can be identified. It also is better able to show contrast within soft tissue in the body than a C.T. scan and is thus, more often used for scanning the brain, spine, muscles, connective tissues, and the inside of bones. .

During an MRI scan, a patient lies on a flat-bed that moves into a tube containing powerful magnets. Depending on the part of your body to be scanned, he/she will move into the scanner either head first or feet first. The patient can talk with the operator during the procedure through an intercom and the operator sees the patient continuously on a television monitor. The radiographer performing the scan uses a computer housed in another room to keep it away from the magnetic field generated by the scanner. The patient wears earplugs or headphones to deaden the loud tapping from the scanner when the coils turns on and off. The scan lasts from 15 minutes to 90 minutes depending upon the size of the area being scanned and images taken. The patient should remain still during the procedure.

The MRI is a painless process that research shows to be as effective as Pet-CT scans but does not expose patients to x-ray radiation. Extensive research on the effects of magnets and radio waves have shown it to be a safe procedure and one study on prostate cancer found it to be twice as effective in diagnosing prostate cancer than a biopsy that is a much more invasive procedure. . Certain people should not have MRI’s such as those with pacemakers.

Videos on MRI’s

What is Getting an MRI Like
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZTXa4qerI4 (5 min)

Understanding MRI’s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5q79R9C-mk (5 min)

5. Early Detection Using Self-Examinations As a Diagnostic Tool (January, 2017)

Breast Self-Exam
Women over the age of 40 are at highest risk of developing breast cancer with an incidence of 1 in 42 women at age 40 years old and an increasing incidence rate each decade thereafter. It is known that early detection reduces the need for extensive treatment and the likelihood of death. In addition, Johns Hopkins says that 40 percent of all breast cancer is identified by women discovering a lump or other abnormality in the breast. Thus, it is important for women over age 40 to have ongoing evaluation of breast health and one of the best methods is a monthly breast self-examination. The following narrative and You Tube Presentations should assist you in carrying out this process. It may be easier to set a specific time each month to carry out the breast self-exam such as after the menstrual cycle.

1.While in the shower with fingers flat move the hand gently over all parts of the breast evaluating for any lumps, hard knots, or thickening. Repeat on the other breast. Also check for any changes in areas identified by your doctor.
2. Standing in front of the mirror with your arms at your side inspect your breasts. Then, raise your arms high overhead and evaluate any changes in contours of each as well as dimpling of the skin, swelling or changes in the nipple.
3. Examine the breasts lying down. Start by lying on your right side with a pillow under your right shoulder, right arm and head. Using the pads of your left hand fingers move around the breast in circular motions covering the breast and arm pit. Repeat on the left side.

Instructional Videos for Breast Self Exams
How to Properly Perform a Breast Self-Exam with Dr Lisa Cassileth
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOAvIub_vvQ (3 min 13 sec)

How to Perform a Breast Self-Exam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPEPIQrewLk (2 min 43 sec)

Things to Look for in Breast Examinations
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6wpOnf2ORg (2 min)

Testicular Self Exam
Statistics show that about 99 percent of males with testicular cancer survive when diagnosed and treated early so a monthly self-examination is important. 1st- Carry out the procedure following a warm shower or tub bath when the testicles are fully descended. Don’t be alarmed if one testicle is larger than the other or hangs lower as this is normal. Check for any swelling of the skin. Next, using both hands with your index and middle fingers placed under the testicle and your thumb on top. Firmly but gently roll the testicle between your fingers and thumb to feel any irregularities on the surface or texture of the testicle. Repeat on the other testicle. Find the epididymis, a soft rope like structure on the back of the testicle to ensure not mistaking this with a lump. If you find any irregularities, contact your primary doctor for follow up.

Testicular Cancer Symptoms
Symptoms may reinforce the need for medical attention. The American Cancer Society identifies the following symptoms of testicular cancer—the most common is a painless lump on or in a testicle. Others include larger or swollen testicles, a heavy or aching feeling in the lower abdomen or scrotum, less often enlarged or sore breasts or early signs of puberty (deepening voice, facial or body hair growth) in young boys. Additional symptoms may be noted if the cancer had metastasized including low back pain (lymph nodes in back of belly), shortness of breath, cough or chest pain (lungs), belly pain (lymph nodes or liver), or headache and/or confusion (brain).

Instructional Videos for Testicular Self Examinations
Testicular Self-Exam Guide
How to Perform a Testicular Self-Exam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYipPMweoPM (2 min)

Testicular Self-Exam
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0ZP5ubi2Io (1 min)

Skin Self Examination (Melanoma Detection)
Like other cancers early detection and treatment are key to survival so do a head to toe skin evaluation monthly. This process may require the following: a bright light, full length mirror, a hand mirror, a blow dryer, two chairs or stools, a body map, and pencil. Using one or both mirrors examine the face with special attention to the nose, mouth, lips, and front and back of ears. Next, thoroughly examine your scalp using a blow dryer and mirror to adequately see each area. If convenient ask a friend or family member to assist. Check your hands including your palms and backs, between the fingers and under the fingernails. Next examine your wrists and front and back of forearm. In front of the full length mirror examine your elbows and all sides of your upper arms including the underarms. Next evaluate your neck, chest and torso including under the breasts for women. Then with your back to the full length mirror and the hand mirror in your hand examine the back of your neck, shoulders, upper part of back and any parts of the arms and shoulders you could not see in earlier parts of the examination. In this position with both mirrors continue to examine the lower back, buttocks, and back of both legs. Last, sit on one chair or stool and prop each leg separately on the other chair or stool. In this position examine the genitals, front and sides of both legs, ankles, top of both feet, between toes, under toenails, soles of feet, and heels.

Skin Self Examination Videos
Skin Self-Exam: How to Do
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iS27V22uNIM (2 ½ min)

How to do a Skin Self Examination
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W82G2QjqOhg (3 min)

What Are You Looking For; Pictures of Melanoma
https://www.melanoma.org/understand-melanoma/resource-library/pictures-of-melanoma?gclid=CLWVtr7pzNECFYWVfgodP3QHQQ

Oral Self-Examination
An oral examination involves assessing the tongue and floor of the mouth, roof of the mouth, cheeks, head and neck, and lips. The most common areas for cancer are the floor of the mouth and sides of the tongue. Examine the oral cavity monthly because the earlier a tumor is found and the smaller it is the more successful treatment will be. Research has shown that tumors 2 centimeters or under are easily cured whereas those larger require more time and treatment.

Start by looking in a mirror and sticking out your tongue. Examine the upper surface of the tongue for lumps or changes in color. Pull the tongue forward and examine the sides for lumps, masses of color changes. Examine the underside of the tongue by placing the tip of the tongue on the roof of the mouth and look for lumps, masses swelling or color changes. Also run your fingers under your tongue to feel for lumps.
To examine the roof of your mouth tilt your head back while looking into a mirror and look for discoloration. Then run your fingers over the roof of your mouth looking for lumps or protrusions.

To evaluate your cheeks visually inspect the inside area for red, white or dark colored patches using a hand mirror. . Extend the cheeks if necessary to accomplish this inspection. Next, place your forefinger on the interior of the cheek and your thumb on the outside cheek. Gently squeeze as you rotate your fingers across each cheek feeling for lumps, and swelling.

Videos for Oral Self Exams
Oral Cancer Prevention
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hZ_0RAIuR4 ( 2 ½ min)

Oral Cancer Self-Examination
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=moyiKBfPIuY (6 min)

6. Early Detection/Using Dream Analysis As a Diagnostic Tool (February-April, 2017)

Introduction
Dreams have been studied for centuries and are discussed in the bible. For example, in Genesis 41 the Pharaoh summonsed Joseph to interpret his dream about cows and corn and using the analysis of the dream allowed the Pharaoh to plan for 7 years of famine and save the Egyptian people from starvation. In the early part of the 20th century Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud taught the value of dreams and later in the century Edgar Cayce gave hundreds of readings in which he discussed dreams and demonstrated their predictive value and value in solving problems. For example, one man who Cayce read for had been plagued with food allergies for many years, but was unable to find the source of his discomfort. Then one night he dreamed of a can of coffee. Thereafter, he quit drinking coffee and his symptoms disappeared. In my own experience, I had a dream that told me to go for a chest x-ray which I did because from years of watching my dreams I received much guidance that I believed to be God speaking with me. The X-ray showed a spot that had not been there previously and a follow up biopsy showed lung cancer. Because lung cancer usually does not have pain until it metastases to another site my dream allowed me to be diagnosed earlier when it was easier to treat. In addition, there were no other symptoms that would have alerted me to have an x-ray.

Many people say they do not dream. However, research shows that everyone has about 90 minutes nightly in the REM dream state. The problem is not that you do not dream but that you do not remember your dreams. However, there are things you can do to facilitate remembering dreams.

Remembering Dreams
Prepare for dreaming before going to bed by giving yourself suggestions that you will remember your dreams. Also place a small flashlight, pen and paper on your bedside table. When you wake up during the night, jot down a few key words on the paper before getting out of bed or touching your feet to the floor. Reviewing those words in the morning will bring the dreams back to memory and you can write them down.

Remembering Your Dreams on You Tube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqUExqIlWDE (5 ½ min)

Analyzing Dreams
The next part of the process is analyzing your dreams. There are several ways you can improve your interpretation of dreams. 1. There are universal symbols that have been identified in books that can help get you started. For example, dreaming about a hospital might be a warning dream about an impending health problem (physical, mental, spiritual) for you or a loved one. However, as a nurse it might relate to work for me. Thus, usually you need to individualize the universal symbols to your situation. You can learn more about universal symbols by reading any one of the good books that have been written or google the word such as “dream meaning of a hospital”. One of my favorite dream books on universal symbols is the Universal Dream Key by Dr Patricia Garfield that discusses common symbols in dreams such as being chased, appearing nude in public, or not knowing answers on a test. Dr Garfield is an internationally known dream expert who has kept a dream log since she was a child and has written many books on dreams. Check out Dr Garfield and her list dream books on Wikipedia. 2. A second way to learn about dreams and analyze your dreams is to join a group that devotes some time to dream analysis. For example, Edgar Cayce worked with a group who were interested in becoming better people by developing spiritually and over time two books evolved titled A Search For God. Using these books as a focus, study groups have evolved all over the world that meet weekly in member’s homes to read from the books, discuss concepts and the application of these concepts in the daily life of members and their successes and failures. The also meditate together at the weekly group meeting and at home at a predetermined time selected by the group. Some of these groups also discuss dreams of the members and help each other with analysis. See the list below. 3. A third way to receive help with dream interpretation is to pay to have a dream interpreted. Three dream experts who I have interviewed and who analyze dreams for a fee are identified below.

Dream Symbol Videos from You Tube
A short video on common dream symbols in the following link. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Co2f0r7qOsw (2 min)

The top 60 dreams and meanings in the following link.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3zHh56xcfs (27 min)

Dream Sharing Internet Site
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/dreamwheel/info

A Yahoo Group for In Depth Discussion of Dreams that is in its 7th Year. They discuss and analyze member’s dreams and work on a different dream each week. Weekly meetings and over 6,000 members. Sign up on the website.
Other Sites Identified by a Google Search have Ended. But check Google periodically for new ones that may start.

Dreams Analyzed For a Fee
There are many who analyze dreams identified by a Google search but I cannot vouch for their authenticity. The following are well respected nation/international dream leaders I have interviewed (see interviews below) and who offer dream analysis as part of their services.

Cynthia Richmond
http://www.dreampower.net/hire.php

https://holisticcancerfoundation.com/interviews-mental-spiritual-aspects/

Interview on this website under dreams—Cynthia Richmond

Cynthia Richmond is a board certified behavioural scientist who has over 20 years interpreting over 55,000 dreams, has written two major books on dreams, appeared on many of the major television and radio show such as Dr Oz, Oprah, the Doctors, the Today Show and many others, written in the Huffington Post, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan and others, She has also appeared in major newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times and the Arizona Republic.

Dr Michael Lennox
http://www.dreaminginterpretation.com/astrological-readings/

Interview on this website-under dreams—Dr Michael Lennox

https://holisticcancerfoundation.com/interviews-mental-spiritual-aspects/

Dr Michael Lennox has over 20 years-experience interpreting dreams for thousands of people. He has a doctorate in psychology and can be heard on various radio shows nationally, seen on many television shows and in print media on a regular basis. He travels frequently to lecture and lead workshops, and currently lives and conducts a private practice in Los Angeles.

Kelly Walden Sullivan
http://www.kellysullivanwalden.com/services/

Interview on this website under dreams—Kelly Walden Sullivan https://holisticcancerfoundation.com/interviews-mental-spiritual-aspects/ 

Kelly Walden Sullivan is a best-selling author, dream expert and clinical hypnotherapist who has written 9 books on dreams including a best seller. She has reached thousands of people during interviews on programs such as Dr Oz, Ricki Lake, Fox News, and Coast to Coast. She started her dream work at age 5 when she shared a room with her sister and they shared dreams. She has since served as an advisor and consultant to Fortune 500 executives, U.N ambassadors, celebrities, stay at home moms, and inner city kids.

Interviews with Experts on Dreams and Analysis
https://holisticcancerfoundation.com/interviews-mental-spiritual-aspects/

The above link will take you to Mental/Spiritual Interviews on this website. If you then search for the category Dreams you will find Seven Interviews on Dream that should broaden your knowledge base.

7. Useful Tests After Diagnosis but Before Starting Treatment to Identify the Best Customized Treatment for the Specific Individual.

Chemotherapy Sensitivity Testing
Some physicians use specialized testing to see which chemotherapy or natural agents are best to kill the cancer cells in a specific person’s body The idea behind chemotherapy Sensitivity Testing is to customize a treatment to the cancer for each person because each cancer may be unique to the person involved. This approach is similar to that used in other fields of medicine. For example if a patient has a bladder infection the doctor usually sends a sample to the lab for testing with various antibiotics available to see which is most effective for the specific patient. The good news is that these are increasing the survival rate of patients. See videos of two practitioners below.

Testing may use different types of cancer samples (tissue, blood samples) depending upon the laboratory used. More recently circulating tumor cells (CTC’s) and cancer stem cells (SDT) are being used based upon cancer cells found floating or circulating in a person’s blood that can be collected and tested. All that is needed for the testing is a simple blood test sample that acts like a “liquid biopsy.” Tumor samples from a surgical sample or tissue biopsy may also be used.

This particular tests include 49 chemo drugs in 5 classes, plus 64 tumor related genes looking for mutation, and 50 natural biologics. Budinger, Mary (2013 says “The list of biologics includes Nrf2 Activator, Artecin, Proteo-Xyme, Arabinogalactan, Aromat8, Dextrol, Cellular Vitality, Epimune Complex, Cat’s Claw Forte, Retenzyme Forte, metformin, Salicinium, Mammary PMG, quercetin, Super Artemisinin, Oncoplex ES, Poly-MVA, C-statin, ascorbic acid, Superoxide Dismutase, Ukrain, Bio-Ae-Mulsion Forte, Bio-D-Mulsion, NuMedica Micellized D3, curcumin, Vitanox, mistletoe, AHCC (Active Hexose Correlated Compound), Amygdalin (B17), Thymex, burdock complex, Salvestrol, Virxcan, Immune Plus (fermented soy extract), DCA (dichloroacetate), genistein, PME, new PME, OPC, Intenzyme Forte, Cruciferous, CV247, lycopene, green tea extract, paw-paw, Indol-3- carbinol, melatonin, Naltrexone, resveratrol, and oleander extract.”

In the Townsend Letters identified above Dr James Forsythe, M.D., HMD, a practicing physician in Reno, Nevada has used this testing for several years and says “I can see the efficacy of all the drugs and supplements tested and I take the best,”“The report comes back in 10 days to 2 weeks, and patients feel empowered because they have a blueprint. I don’t believe you can administer chemotherapy – even the low dose insulin potentiation therapy (IPTLD) which I use – without a test. When I look at the test results for the drugs, I look for the high responders, those that achieve about 80 percent sensitivity. We do not use drugs that we think will be less than 50 percent effective. With the supplements, the percentage does not have to be that high because so many of them are helpful in going after the cancer stem cells and boosting the immune system.”

For years Dr Forsythe has done outcome studies on different interventions used with clients and is now utilizing genetic chemo-sensitivity testing, immune therapy, insulin-potentiated therapy, along with IV Poly-MVA to enhance his results. His patients are discharged on oral Poly-MVA and targeted treatments. There is follow-up every 3 months. In his 6th year of the current study of one thousand stage 4 cancer patients he is having a 70% five year survival rate showing the value of chemosensitivity testing. .It is hard to believe a doctor would not do a chemsensitivity test prior to treating a patient to improve the survival rate. If your chosen doctor does not do this testing discuss it with him and if necessary show him the outcomes of using this approach.

More information at: www.RGCC-group.com Tests are carried out in Greece, Germany (2 sites) and Korea. In the DVD below Dr Forsythe says the Korea testing has worked best for him currently. Some insurance companies may pay for this so check with your company. The cost is listed as around $800.

Reference: Budinger, Mary (2013) Chemo-Sensitivity Testing-Customizing Cancer Treatment. Townsend Letter. Aug-Sept.
Rational Therapeutics, 750 E. 29th Street, Long Beach, CA 90806, 562.989.6455, 800.542.HELP (4357). Lab that is suppose to do chemosensitivity testing in USA check out xxxxxxx

Videos on Chemosensitivity Testing

Chemosensitivity Testing Developing the Testing Dr Joannis Papasotiriou 1 hour
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xs6FwRPbdak&list=PLG_clK3c422lH_zjUEU8uK281XBrrHUeg&index=2
Chemosensitivity Testing. You Tube with Dr James Forsythe, practitioner 7 min.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuz7vPDkDEA

Chemosensitivity Testing for Lung Cancer 5 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKh-rMCc4dQ

EVA (Ex Vivo Apoptotic Assay
The Ex Vivo Apoptotic Assay is similar to the chemo sensitivity test and in addition to identifying the best chemotherapy agents for the patient also looks for the best chemicals to activate or deactivate pathways over which cells including cancer cells communicate. These tests are not as well developed and accepted as the chemo sensitivity tests. More information is available at the following websites: https://www.rational-t.com/about/dr-nagourney-0 and http://www.weisenthal.org/faqw.htm

ATP-TCA-Test
Similar to Chemo sensitivity Tests. Cancer is a heterogeneous disease so that one treatment will not work for all tumors of similar type. Instead, it has been learned in practice and research that treatment is more effective if it is individualized. Thus chemo sensitivity test tries to improve outcomes (effectiveness) of treatment by testing potential treatments against cancer cells before treatment begins using cancer tissue from the patient. Fresh tumor material often removed during an operation is placed on test plates and then mixed in with various doses of chemotherapy medications. Cultures are incubated for 7 days. Thereafter the ATP content of the cells is measured with a illuminometer and determines to what degree the cancer cells are resistant or sensitivity to a certain drug. This test has reached the phase of clinical trials successfully and several research studies have shown it to be especially useful for ovarian and breast cancers. More information at: http://www.biopharmlabs.com/products.php

 

8. Testing after Diagnosis to Determine Probability of Later Recurrence

MammaPrint-70-Gene Assay Test
This genomic test analyzes the activity of 70 genes in early stage breast cancer to determine the risk of recurrence of cancer in the 10 years following diagnosis. It looks at the tumor to determine what is driving its growth that in turn affect the behavior of cancer including how likely it is to grow and spread. Although most women with early-stage breast cancer have a low risk of cancer recurrence and can safely avoid chemotherapy following surgery this test will determine whether an individual breast cancer client falls in the low or high risk group. It is the only FDA-cleared risk of recurrence test that provides a definitive result so breast cancer clients know with certainty they are at low or high risk of recurrence and will or will not benefit from chemotherapy following surgery.

Criteria for the use of the MammaPrint Test for Breast cancer patients in the United States included being stage 1 or 2, being invasive, tumor smaller than 5 cm, and estrogen-receptor-positive or negative. International criteria adds being in 3 or fewer nodes. The test can be performed on fresh or fresh frozen breast cancer tissue or tissue that has been treated with a special solution that preserves the genetic material. It can also be done on a sample preserved from the original biopsy or surgery.

Medicare and some insurance companies pay for the procedure. Agendia, the maker of the test, has a Reimbursement Assistance Program to help with insurance and payment issues. Research shows that almost half of the women currently receiving chemotherapy do not need it based upon this test. See studies at: http://www.agendia.com/healthcare-professionals/breast-cancer/test-results/

Further Reading at: Cardoso F, Van’t Veer LJ, Bogaerts J et al. 70-Gene Signature as an Aid to Treatment Decisions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375:717-29.

Videos on MammaPrint Test
MammaPrint Discussion 2 ½ min

MammaPrint Identify women who Can Avoid Chemotherapy 2 min

MammaPrint- Genetic testing reduces chemotherapy overtreatment in breast cancer patients. 9 minutes

 

ColoPrint Test for Colon Cancer (18 gene expression profile)

This test, also developed by Agentia, is similar to MammaPrint but is for stage II colon cancer patients and calculates their risk of recurrence. Low Risk Results predict 7% risk of recurrence within 3 years and 10.3% risk or relapse within 5 years. High Risk Results predict 17.1% risk of recurrence within 3 years and 20.9% risk of recurrence within 5 years (Alpha Med Press (2015).

Only about 20% of all state II colon cancer patients experience a relapse after surgery and in the past most traditional patients were given chemotherapy. It is now know that that treatments was unnecessary for many patients. The ColoPrint test identifies the risk for each patient and allows the physician to use this data along with clinical data to determine if chemotherapy is necessary or not. This test saves low risk patients from the expense and agony of additional treatment and provides chemotherapy to prevent recurrence for the group at risk.

This test focused on stage II colon cancer patients because most stage I patients are treated with surgery only whereas stage III usually received surgery and follow up chemotherapy to prevent recurrence. Stage II colon cancer patients fell in a grey area and most were treated with chemotherapy. Research now shows that that was not necessary for about 80% of patients receiving surgery who did not have a recurrence.
Reference: http://alphamedpress.com/pr/coloprint-gene-assay-predicts-stage-ii-colorectal-cancer-recurrence