In 1993, Carver et al studied how coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress. Fifty nine breast cancer patients were studied and reported on their overall optimism about life and recent coping responses and distress levels at the following times; at diagnosis, 1 day presurgery, 10 days postsurgery, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-ups. Results showed that optimism related inversely to distress at each point, even controlling for prior...
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